A statistical evaluation model for the time-dependent strength of cement-admixed marine clay

Huawen Xiao, Yong Liu, Hui Liu, Guicai Shi


Deep Cement Mixing (DCM) is widely used in urban infrastructure construction such as deep excavation and tunnelling. The variability of the properties of natural soils, combined with uncertainty and inaccuracy of construction operation of deep soil mixing, leads to non-uniformity of the binder distribution in the deep cement-mixed soil, therefore, the often highly variable strength. This study investigates the point level of the unconfined compressive strength of cement-stabilized soils. A statistical approach to evaluate the heterogeneous strength of cement-admixed marine clay is proposed. The unconfined compressive strength of cemented clay is regarded as a random variable with the probability density distribution being assumed as the lognormal distribution. Particularly, the curing time effect is considered in the approach. A simple time-dependent probability density distribution is proposed, with only the mean value changing to account for the curing time effect.


cement-treated marine clay; unconfined compressive strength; curing time effect statistical analysis; random variable

Full Text:


Included Database


Liu Y, Quek ST, Lee FH. (2016). Translation random field with marginal beta distribution in modelling material properties. Structural Safety 61: 57-66.

Rathmayer H. (1996). Deep mixing methods for soft subsoil improvement in the Nordic countries. Proc. 2nd International Conference on Ground Improvement Geosystems, Tokyo, 2: 869-878.

Probaha A. (1998). State of the art in deep mixing technology: Part 1. Basic concepts and overview of technology. Ground Improvement 2(2): 81-92.

Bruce DA, Bruce MEC. (2003). The practitioner’s guide to deep mixing. Proc. 3rd International Conference on Grounting and Ground Treatment, New York, 120: 474-488.

Kamon M. (1996). Effects of grouting and DMM on big construction projects in Japan and the 1995 Hyogoken-Nambu earthquake. Proc. 2nd International Conference on Ground Improvement Geosystems, Tokyo, (2): 807-823.

Bahador M, Pak A. (2012). Small-strain shear modulus of cement-admixed kaolinite. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering 30: 163–171.

Flores RD, Di Emidio G, Van Impe WF. (2010). Small-strain shear modulus and strength increase of Cement-Treated clay. Geotechnical Testing Journal, 33(1): 62-71,

Xiao H. (2017). Evaluating the stiffness of chemically stabilized marine clay. Marine Georesources & Geotechnology 35(5): 698-709.

Xiao H, Shen W, Lee FH. (2017a). Engineering properties of marine clay admixed with Portland cement and blended cement with siliceous fly ash. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, ASCE, 29(10): 04017177.

Xiao H, Wang W, Goh SH. (2017b). Effectiveness study for fly ash cement improved marine clay. Construction and Building Materials, 157: 1053–1064.

Xiao H, Lee FH, Yao K, Ho J, Liu Y. (2018a). Miniature LVDT setup for local strain measurement on cement-treated clay specimens. Marine Georesources & Geotechnology.

Xiao H, Yao K, Liu Y, Goh SH, Lee FH (2018b). Small strain shear modulus study with bender element testing for cement-treated marine clay. Construction and Building Materials, 172: 433-447.

Gallavresi F. (1992). Grouting improvement of foundation soils. Proc. Grouting, Soil Improvement and Geosynthetics, ASCE, New York, 30: 1-38.

Nishida K, Koga Y, Miura N. (1996). Energy consideration of the dry jet mixing method. Proc. 2nd International Conference on Ground Improvement Geosystems, Tokyo, (1): 643-748.

Lee FH, Lee Y, Chew SH. (2005). Strength and modulus of marine clay-cement mixes. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 131(2): 178-186.

Xiao HW, Lee FH, Chin KG. (2014). Yielding of cement-treated marine clay. Soils and Foundations, 54(3): 488-501.

Honjo Y. (1982). A probabilistic approach to evaluate shear strength of heterogeneous stabilized ground by deep mixing method. Soils and Foundations 22(1): 23-38.

Babasaki R, Terashi M, Suzuki T, Maekawa A, Kawamura M, Fukazawa E. (1997). JGS TC Report: Factor influencing the strength of the improved soil. Proc. Grouting and Deep Mixing, The 2nd International Conference on Ground Improvement Geosystems, A.A. Balkema, 913-918.

CDIT (Coastal Development Institute of Technology), J. (2002). The deep mixing method: principle, design, and construction, Swets & Zeitlinger Publishers, Lisse ; Exton, PA.

Larsson S. (2003). Mixing processes for ground improvement by deep mixing. Ph.D, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, Stockholm.

Larsson S, Dahlstrom M, Nilsson BA. (2005). Uniformity of lime-cement columns for deep mixing: a field study. Ground Improvement 9(1): 1-15.

Lee FH, Lee CH, Dasari GR. (2006). Centrifuge modeling of wet deep mixing processes in soft clays. Géotechnique, 56(10): 677-691.

Lee FH, Lee CH, Dasari GR. (2008). Centrifuge study on uniformity of wet deep mixing. International Journal of Physical Modelling in Geotechnics 8(1): 1-20.

Chen J, Lee FH, Ng CC. (2011). Statistical analysis for strength variation of deep mixing columns in Singapore. GeoFrontiers 2011: Advances in Geotechnical Engineering (GSP 211), Han J, Alzamora DE, eds., Geo-Institute, ASCE, Dallas, TX, 576-584.

Probaha A. (2002). State of the art in quality assessment of deep mixing technology. Ground Improvement, 6(3): 95-120.

Liu Y, Zheng JJ, Guo J. (2008). Statistical evaluation for strength of pile by deep mixing method. In Geotechnical Engineering for Disaster Mitigation and Rehabilitation (Editors Liu H.L et al.) Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Liu Y, Lee FH, Quek ST, Chen EJ, Yi JT. (2015). Effect of spatial variation of strength and modulus on the lateral compression response of cement-admixed clay slab. Géotechnique. 65(10): 851-865.

Chen EJ, Liu Y, Lee FH. (2016). A statistical model for the unconfined compressive strength of deep-mixed columns. Géotechnique 66(5): 351-365.

Larsson S. (2001). Binder distribution in lime-cement columns. Ground Improvement, 5(3): 110-122.

Larsson S, Dahlstrom M, Nilsson BA. (2005b). A complementary field study on the uniformity of lime-cement columns for deep mixing. Ground Improvement 9(2): 67-77.

Chen J. (2012). Centrifuge model study of mixing quality in wet deep mixing. Doctor of Philosophy, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

Lee FH, Chin KG, Xiao H, Chen J. (2013). Cement-soil treatment in underground construction. Indian Geotechnical Conference 2013, Roorkee, India.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Huawen Xiao

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.